Philippine Journal of Social Development Volume 3 2011


Emmanuel M. Luna and JC Gaillard
Rosalinda Pineda-Ofreneo
Considered a crucial development challenge of the present times, climate change increases the vulnerability of the poorest and most disadvantaged groups as in the experience of farmers, fisherfolk, indigenous peoples, women and children. With the risks associated with the phenomenon that the country is now facing, from flooding to geologic dangers, destruction of ‘weather-dependent’ livelihoods to health-related impacts, relevant policies and plans at the national and local governments were devised mainstreaming climate change and disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM).
The Philippines for instance has now advanced pieces of legislation to enhance, strengthen and rationalize social protection policies and programs, to further lead articulation and integration of climate change and DRRM concerns into current and future interventions. Aimed at contributing to the process, this ‘think paper’ addresses the social dimensions of climate change through espousing a rights-based, transformative, gender-responsive, participatory and sustainable approach to social protection.

Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework: Lessons from Implementation

Aleli B. Bawagan
This paper presents the community-based disaster risk reduction and management (CBDRRM) framework as it is being implemented by various stakeholders, such as non-government organizations, people’s organizations, local government units, academic institutions and other civil society organizations. The engagements of the development workers in projects and activities under each major phase of the framework are discussed. For preparedness and mitigation, projects that build disaster resilient communities are highlighted, focusing on early warning systems, advocacy with local governments and building sustainable livelihoods. For disaster response, having a damage and needs assessment (DANA) and preparing a more gender-sensitive and older persons-sensitive relief kit are presented as experienced during relief operations after Typhoon Ondoy. For rehabilitation and recovery, participatory processes engaged in re-building potable water supplies are discussed.

Lessons and Challenges in Disaster Relief Operations for Families Affected by Typhoon Ondoy in Rizal Province

Josephine Tajo-Firmase, Vincent F. Eugenio, Ma. Josephine A. Bullo, Liew Shao Yi, Delmar Gabriel, and Emmanuel M. Luna
Due to the 2009 flood brought about by Typhoon Ondoy, relief operations were done through the partnership of a humanitarian organization and academe. The engagement of the academe was deemed important to document and draw lessons from the experience in emergency response. This paper examines the experience on disaster relief operations. It looks at the processes, good practices, challenges and issues faced during the provision of relief goods from needs assessment, pre-distribution preparation, actual distribution and post-distribution activities. The paper provides insights in improving practices in disaster relief operations that can contribute to more humane processes, better interpersonal relations and substantial impact.

Community Development Approach in the Recovery of Selected Communities Affected by Typhoon Ondoy Flood

Emmanuel M. Luna
In September 2009, Metro Manila and the surrounding communities experienced the worst flood due to Typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng. The depth of the flood reached 30 feet in some communities, submerging a number of urban poor areas. Along the Marikina River, residents were either relocated or allowed to stay in their communities. But those who were relocated to safer areas were confronted with new challenges due to problems in proximity and poor access to their sources of livelihood and the schools. Moreso, services for water, power and other basic provisions were inadequate. On the other hand, the people who stayed in the same vulnerable areas were able to immediately start rebuilding their houses and respective communities. using the community development framework, this paper looks at the recovery and rebuilding of communities affected by the flood in two barangays: one that was relocated to another site, and another that stayed in the vulnerable community. The outcome shows that the people who remained in the same community had a higher level of recovery compared to those in the relocation area. In this community, the residents had greater experiences in community education, organizing, resources and disaster risk management processes.
Keywords    community-based disaster risk management, community development, flood recovery

Social and Economic Impacts of Flooding and Land Subsistence in KAMANAVA, Metro Manila

Karen Ann B. Jago-on, Shinji Kaneko, and Satoru Komatsu
Many areas in Metro Manila are subjected to heavy and regular flooding. Excessive rains brought by monsoons and typhoons cause flooding in the metropolis and storm surges along its coastal areas. The temporary accumulation of water is also due to insufficient drainage systems and impervious surfaces. In recent years, these flooding events have been exacerbated by land subsidence, especially in the northern parts of Metro Manila or the KAMANAVA area. A survey of households and companies was conducted to understand the flood characteristics in the area and the socio-economic impacts on the community. Results reveal the social and economic consequences and impact of flooding to properties, health and livelihood. The study shows also the factors affecting the annual cost due to floods. The research concludes with policy recommendations to curtail land subsidence and eventually reduce the impacts of flooding.

Rebuilding Communities and Lives: the Role of Damayan and Bayanihan in Disaster Resiliency 

Teresita V. Barrameda and Arlen Sandino V. Barrameda
The study explores the roles played by damayan (mutual aid) and bayanihan (cooperation and volunteerism) in the lives of people in five rural communities in Albay Province. It highlights how these indigenous practices serve as social resource in the people’s day-to-day survival, as coping mechanisms in times of typhoons and flooding and as adaptive strategies in building their resiliency. The study shows that these practices help in developing their own sub-cultures of safety and promoting the emotional well-being of the people. There were limitations in these indigenous practices, requiring external support to sustain the people’s initiatives for recovery. The study also provides insights and proposals on how local government units and organizations in the disaster field can utilize damayan and bayanihan in disaster risk reduction.


The Philippine Journal of Social Development is a peer-reviewed journal published by the College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines Diliman. The views and opinions expressed in this journal are solely the author’s and do not necessarily reflect those of the College of Social Work and Community Development.

Philippine Copyright © 2011

University of the Philippines Diliman

ISSN 2094-523X 

All rights reserved.
No part of this journal may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the written permission of the copyright owner and the publisher.

Issue Editor Emmanuel M. Luna

Guest Editorial Adviser JC Gaillard

Managing Editor Josefina M. Rolle

Editorial Board Jocelyn T. Caragay, Rosalinda Pineda-Ofreneo, Ma. Theresa V. Tungpalan

Published by College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines

Disclaimer The views and opinions expressed in this journal are solely the authors’ and do not necessarily reflect those of the College of Social Work and Community Development.