Philippine Journal of Social Development Volume 12 2019
Ma. Theresa V. Tungpalan, Ph.D.
Rowena A. Laguilles-Timog, DSD
Kahampatan: Ayta’s concept of development in the context of Indigenous People’s (IP) culture and identity
Angelito B. Meneses, DSD
Abstract This paper describes the Ayta’s notions and experiences of development within their own culture and identity which is encapsulated in their term ‘kahampatan.’ It is evident that long before the introduction of the dominant development paradigms into the Ayta communities in the Province of Zambales, these Ayta groups already had their perspectives about development and well-being. ‘Kahampatan’ is the Ayta’s account of self-determined development that shares commonality with other indigenous notions of living well such as buen vivir, sumac kawsay and laman laka. The study used qualitative research methods with an indigenous research approach and orientation. Data were generated from semi-structured interviews, fieldwork-immersion and participant observation. ‘Kahampatan’ is depicted as an appropriate attitude and act ion towards relating positively with others and the realization of the goodness of life for everyone. ‘Kahampatan’ as a framework for development in the context of identity and culture emphasizes four elements of a good life or living well — a right relationship with Apo Namalyari or the Creator, a right relationship with the self, a right relationship with others and a right relationship with nature.
Keywords Ayta of Zambales, IP identity and culture, kahampatan, self-determined development
Towards Enhancing Capabilities of Children of Overseas Filipino Workers to Sustain Resilience and Mitigate Vulnerabilities
Mark Anthony D. Abenir, DSD
Abstract The Capabilities Approach was used in this study to understand the experiences of resilience and vulnerabilities in the lives of children of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) in the Philippines. It argues that the impact of family separation on the functionings and capabilities of the children left behind must be analyzed. This will provide the context for identifying what specific human capabilities should be safeguarded to ensure that migration benefits are sustained and vulnerabilities are mitigated. Through focused ethnography, this study draws qualitative and quantitative insights from 2,446 workshop participants of ANAK (Anak ng Nangibang-bansa Aruga at Kaagapay or Nurturing and Support for the Children of Overseas Workers) held nationwide from 2011 to 2013. Three valuable capability sets were identified that reflected the voices of children of OFWs. Findings from this study can serve as a guide in crafting migration and development policies that are sensitive to meeting the needs of the program participants in particular, and left-behind children by migrating parents in general.
Keywords left-behind children, children of migrant workers, capabilities approach, resilience, vulnerability
Examining Unpaid Care Work of Women in the Sandwich Generation: Pathways towards Social Protection and Wellbeing
Excelsa C. Tongson, DSD
Abstract Drawing from feminist standpoint epistemology and Kabeer’s Social Relations Approach, this research is anchored on three critical points. First, it claims that women are authentic sources of knowledge that aid in the understanding of society. Second, it asserts that, as owners of their narratives, women in the sandwich generation bring along with them abundant and solid resources that contain both their dominant and subordinated views and persona in providing unpaid care. Lastly, it treats women’s experiences not only as instruments for understanding how society operates but more importantly as dynamic vehicles for reorganizing and changing society’s structure and workings. The situation of seven low-income urban women in the sandwich generation shows a major confluence of class, gender, age, and other identities. In terms of current policies, the single-determinant approach focusing only on one aspect of social protection has largely ignored individual differences and other identities thus limiting our understanding of how the world of women in the sandwich generation revolves and functions around their triple roles.
Keywords unpaid care work, sandwich generation, social protection, women’s well-being, intersectionality, feminist epistemology
Creating Spaces for a Community-Engaged Leadership for Health and Development
Meredith del Pilar-Labarda, MD, DSD
Abstract Given the importance of health leadership and community participation in improving and sustaining health outcomes, it is important that the leadership processes that work to improve health systems through genuine community participation and empowerment be surfaced, described, and analyzed. In this context, this study investigated the relationship between health leadership and people’s participation within the municipal health systems of selected municipalities in the Eastern Visayas Region, Philippines. It analyzed the underlying processes of this relationship and its impact on health outcomes.
The study used a mixed methods approach with primary data collected from workshop participants and local organizations in the enrolled communities in a 12-month period between 2017-2018. Key informant interviews (KIIs) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted with mayors, municipal health officers, barangay leaders, and barangay health workers (BHWs).
Results showed that local leadership and governance is significantly positively correlated with the other five building blocks of the health system namely human resources for health, health financing, access to medicines and technology, health information systems, and health service delivery. The practice of dialogue, multi-stakeholder engagement, systems and complexity thinking, and prototyping all yield positive health governance outcomes. The Bridging Leadership framework provided a scaffolding for an ethical leadership to bridge the gap between the powerful and powerless in society.
Keywords health and development, local health system, leadership and governance
Framing Research in Social Development Thinking and Practice: The DSD Experience
Teresita Villamor- Barrameda, DSD
Abstract This study examines the trends in social development (SD) perspectives, strategies, and processes gleaned from the dissertations of doctoral graduates of the UP-CSWCD Doctor of Social Development (DSD) program from 2014 to 2019. Thirteen (13) dissertations of DSD graduates were used as case materials in drawing out lessons in SD research.
Two major trends emerged from the 13 dissertations: one, what are the defining features of SD research, and two, knowledge-building and meaning-making initiatives. Two guiding features differentiate SD research from mainstream social research: (1) a clear standpoint and bias for the poor, marginalized, and disadvantaged groups and communities; and (2) privileging the voices and perspectives of the poor, the marginalized, and the disadvantaged.
In terms of knowledge-building and meaning-making, significant themes were noted: (1) community organizing-community development (CO-CD) perspectives are embedded in SD concepts, strategies, and processes; (2) feminist perspectives complement and enhance SD knowledge building by examining gender and power relations within social institutions (i.e., family, community organizations, market, and the State); and, (3) the dissertations provide a learning platform for DSD students to engage in development discourse and grounded theorizing. The research participants are generally regarded as co-learners in the research process. The paper concludes by citing the implications and challenges to Social Development as an academic discipline in the context of policy development and planning, theorizing, and curricular development and enhancement.
Keywords social development, SD research, DSD program, development practice, SD as an academic discipline
Engendering Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) in the Context of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda
Rosalinda Pineda Ofreneo, Ph.D.
Abstract How can women in poverty, as well as other vulnerable groups, realize their aspirations for a life of dignity and prosperity within the framework of the 2030 Development Agenda given the persistent poverty, extreme inequality, recurring financial and food crises, climate change and its disastrous impacts gripping the world today? One pathway being tried out in many places is Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE). As defined by the United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on SSE, this “refers to the production of goods and services by a broad range of organizations and enterprises that have explicit social and often environmental objectives, and are guided by principles and practices of cooperation, solidarity, equity and democratic self-management” (UNTFSSE, 2014:1). SSEs, however, may not necessarily be supportive of women’s empowerment. This paper, therefore, aims to explore this dilemma by attempting to answer the following question: Do SSE initiatives documented in existing case studies within Asia, particularly in the Philippines and other ASEAN member countries, consciously pursue the SDG on gender equality as they aspire to realize other SDG goals? Its objectives include: 1) To examine the relationship between SSEs and the achievement of SDG goal number 5 on gender equality in available case studies from the region; 2) To surface gains and gaps in these initiatives by employing SDG and SSE evaluation criteria; and 3) To make recommendations for future action based on insights culled from the research.
Keywords sustainable development goals, social and solidarity economy, gender equality, women’s empowerment, SSE initiatives
Grassroots Intermediaries in Urban Informal Trading: Brokering for Development or Stifling Dissent?
Redento B. Recio, Ph.D.
Abstract In many Global South cities, informal hawkers occupy public spaces to earn a living. They often face eviction, resulting in uncertain income and insecure access to workplaces. Inevitably, many vendors nurture a clientelist link with political brokers to cope with their precarious street life. In some cases, vendor groups engage with state agencies to resist eviction and push for social inclusionary policies. While the informal vending literature has examined the strategies and outcomes of various state-vendor relationships, there has been scant scholarly account on the role of intermediaries in the engagement channels. In this paper, I ask: How do grassroots intermediaries facilitate and sustain engagement channels between street vendors and state actors? What role/s do they play in the engagement practices? I draw on the experience of Baclaran hawkers to demonstrate how grassroots intermediaries perform four functions: a) conduit to power structures; b) instrument of control; c) facilitator of social dialogues; and d) channel for policy advocacy. I argue that these critical roles reinforce grassroots democratic entanglements where collective action practices contain progressive and regressive democratic elements as well as conflicting motives or routines in a context of acute inequality and informality.
Keywords urban informal economy, Baclaran hawkers, grassroots intermediaries, grassroots democratic entanglements, urban citizenship
Learning Tourism Destination: Contributions towards Community Education and Social Development
Aleli B. Bawagan, Ph.D., Miguela M. Mena, Ph.D., Richard Philip A. Gonzalo, and Victor G. Obedicen
Abstract Learning Tourism Destination (LTD) is a learning organization approach that improves the sustainability of tourism destinations. This development concept advocates collaborative learning and co-creation of knowledge between the tourist and the various service providers in the destination and recognizes the capacity of societies to learn and to develop economic organizations that are relevant to its unique context. Grounded in the point of view of the local community, the goal of this research was to look at the contributions of LTD to social development, specifically in the improvement of human well-being, with emphasis on community learning that occurs among different stakeholders. The Municipality of Maribojoc was deemed an appropriate study area for the application of LTD as it was recovering from the effects of the 2013 earthquake where volunteer tourism was used as a recovery strategy. Secondary data analysis and qualitative research methods, such as community immersion, personal and key informant interviews, and workshops, were conducted in six barangays of Maribojoc to explore tourism development in the province of Bohol and in the municipality. Research findings showed that LTD has contributed to the improvement of the human well-being, specifically on continuing community education processes, as well as in terms of organization building and strengthening; environment protection and rehabilitation; and stronger linkages and partnerships among various tourism actors.
Keywords learning tourism destination, learning communities, community education, social development, Maribojoc, Bohol
Disaggregated Data: Making Sure that Excluded Peoples are Included (The experience of the Las Piñas Persons with Disability Federation, Inc. in participatory data profiling)
Paul Edward N. Muego
Abstract Addressing disability is a fundamental aspect of re-imagining social development and reclaiming people’s development. An essential aspect of this is having disability-related data which can be used in measuring and tracking the progress of global development initiatives such as the Sustainable Development Goals as well as in deciding priorities, crafting policies, and developing and implementing development programs at the national and local levels. This article aims to describe the experiences of the Las Piñas Persons with Disability Federation, Inc. (LPPWDFI), an organization of persons with disabilities in developing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating their own data-profiling project. This article utilized a combination of three methods: (a) Pakikiisa at Pakikipamuhay (Integration), (b) Kwentuhan at sama-aralan (Conversations, dialogue, reflection, and learning sessions) and (c) Pagbabasa at pagsusuri ng mga kwento at dokumento (Review and analysis of existing documents) with the underlying intent of listening to and valuing the perspectives and voices of persons with disabilities. Four critical factors that contributed to the success of the LPPWDFI’s collective initiative are also discussed in the article: (a) Rights, identities, and aspirations of persons with disabilities, (b) Leadership development, capacity-building, and local initiatives, (c) The role of support organizations and the state, and (d) Facing the need to build on local gains. The article hopes that the story of LPPWDFI’s data profiling initiative can open up spaces for introspection among organizations of persons with disabilities and eventually for their collective action aimed at creating inclusive communities in a more inclusive world.
Keywords disability-disaggregated data, participatory data profiling, social inclusion, persons with disability, LPPDFI
Interrogating Human Rights: A Personal Journey in Drafting the Right to International Solidarity
Virginia B. Dandan, DSD
Keywords human rights, right to international solidarity
The Philippine Journal of Social Development is a peer-reviewed journal published by the College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines Diliman. The views and opinions expressed in this journal are solely the author’s and do not necessarily reflect those of the College of Social Work and Community Development.
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University of the Philippines Diliman
All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the written permission of the copyright owner and the publisher.
Issue Editors Ma. Theresa V. Tungpalan, Ph.D., and Rowena A. Laguilles-Timog, DSD
Managing Editor Valerainne R. Lopez
Technical Editor Melissa Y. Moran
Editorial Board Sylvia E. Claudio, MD, Ph.D.; John Erwin S. Banez, Ma. Linnea V. Tanchuling
Published by College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines
Disclaimer The views and opinions expressed in this journal are solely the authors’ and do not necessarily reflect those of the College of Social Work and Community Development.