PJSD 2013 Volume 5
The Peace and Governance Issue
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Issue Editor: Aleli B. Bawagan, PhD
Jocelyn T. Caragay
Rosalinda Pineda-Ofreneo, PhD
Leocito S. Gabo, PhD
Managing Editor: Josefina M. Rolle
Copy Editor: Rowena Ayque Laguilles
Gendered Work Relations Systems in Agriculture: Implications to Women’s Participation, Good Governance and Sustainable Development
by Rebecca Samson-Gaddi, PhD
In recent years, feminist epistemology has allowed philosophical discourses and literary writings through women’s eyes. Women have played important roles, most often unrecognized, in setting the texture, pace and values of social, cultural, political and economic development. Two field level experiences, specifically on sustainable farming and coastal resource management, show how rural women’s participation and contribution have engendered work practices through the production systems they engage in. While part of the agricultural production process, women also responded to life circumstances considering crucial needs of their families, organizational responsibilities and community participation.
Keywords: work relations systems, sustainable agriculture, rural women’s participation in sustainable farming and coastal resource management.
Participation of Farmer Leaders in Local and National Governance Structures: Will it Work?
by Aleli B. Bawagan, PhD, Ana Angela T. Cayabyab, Devralin T. Lagos, Victor G. Obedicen, Celeste F. Vallejos, and Reginald S. Vallejos
This paper aims to present the outcomes of participation of farmer leaders elected to local and national government positions. At the local levels, these positions include being chiefs of villages, members of the local village council, mayor, and municipal councilor; while at the national level, being representative of a party list in Congress. This research looks into the outcomes on four aspects: on the individual leader, specifically on their views regarding the parliamentary struggle and its contribution to advancing their development agenda; on the benefits that accrue to the people’s organization; on the services that were rendered to the community; and how the leaders achieved and promoted their sectoral development agenda as elected officials. The study also intends to surface lessons and implications to community development theory and practice in terms of leadership development, community organizing, community governance and empowerment.
The case studies provide rich insights on the role of farmer leaders in local and national governance. The cases show the importance of practicing the values of being persistent, consultative, participatory, and selfless service, which the leaders have learned from their respective organizations and carried with them even when they are now in government positions. Their experiences demonstrate that people’s organizations are good training ground for future leaders in government. Moreover, the leaders have shown that if elected officials have the welfare of people in mind, remote areas will not be neglected and will be provided with basic infrastructure and social services which people have aspired for over the years.
Keywords: community governance, leadership development, community development
Emerging Roles of Non-Government and Community-Based Organizations in Social Development: Some Case Studies Focusing on Children
by Editha Venus Maslang, PhD
This paper describes and analyzes the specific roles and contributions of selected NGOs in the Philippines to social development and how they are able to ensure sustainability of the gains from their efforts and interventions. Starting off with a theoretical discussion on social development, the paper revolves around how the interplay of socio-cultural, economic, political and environment factors has impinged upon the outcomes of interventions of these NGOs. Social development is focused on two major elements: a) access to resources and opportunities, and b) strengthened capacities for sustained participation and empowerment. Three brief case studies are presented to narrow the discussions to the experiences of some selected members of the National Council of Social Development (NCSD) that cater primarily to the children sector.
Using desk review and case study methods, the data revealed the following: a) increased participation of women in community development work as leaders or active volunteers; b) creation and implementation of some alternative models of practice – mobile school, street peer education, and mobilizing peace builders among children; c) strengthened capacities of CBO leaders in governance and partnership building; d) presence of community-based structures, mechanisms and processes that facilitate the project development processes; e) introduction of cost-efficient and culturally appropriate technologies such as backyard gardening and community-based savings and mobilization scheme that effectively sustained the interest and participation of the members; f) the presence of second-line leaders; and, g) formalized partnerships with the local government units and other key partners.
On the other hand, the following are needed capacities to effectively sustain the project initiatives and gains of the organizations: further advocacy for stronger and sustained support to the NGO projects/activities from among their local partners and key stakeholders; strengthening of capacities on resource mobilization, financial management and stewardship, and network and alliance building; and, the preparation and implementation of a sustainability plan at the onset of project implementation.
Keywords: social development, roles of non-government organizations and community – based organizations
The Meaning of Creativity among Filipino Social Workers and its Implications to Governance
by Justin Francis Leon V. Nicolas
The meanings that Filipino social workers attach to creativity have implications on social administration and governance. The personal and work-related meanings that the participants give to creativity, the areas of practice that they view as creative and the conditions in the workplace that favour or hinder creativity also point to areas of “creative leadership”. Using a phenomenological approach, the research focuses on the journeys of social workers in creativity. The research describes how practitioners consider social work as a creative profession and how their work introduces innovation in the organization and in service delivery through formulation of new policy, programs and strategies. The study suggests that leadership needs to apply governance approaches that harness creativity in individuals and in organizations. The study also suggests a typology of meanings of creativity that may be the basis for further studies in this area.
Keywords: creativity, social work practice, creative leadership, governance
Community Development Animating Peacebuilding from Below: The Case of GiNaPaLaDTaKa Space for Peace in Pikit, North Cotabato
by Fermin P. Manalo, Jr.
The paper explores ways by which Community Development (CD) principles and strategies can animate community-based peacebuilding as lens with which to comprehend the latter’s dynamics and as means to facilitate its formation. This exploration was done by culling out insights from the experience of GiNaPaLaDTaKa Space for Peace. Inversely, the paper also looked at the ways by which CD strategies could be shaped by a situation of large scale violence amidst communities striving to build peace. The paper recommends ways by which community-based peacebuilding can be institutionalized through the mechanisms of community governance and how as a local initiative, it can possibly become the foundation for national level peacebuilding – thus, Peacebuilding from Below.
Keywords: peacebuilding from below, community development, space for peace
Addressing Food Security Issues Using a Human Rights-Based Approach
by Rosalinda Pineda Ofreneo, PhD
In the face of persistent hunger stalking the Philippines, Asia, and the entire world, it is important to situate food security issues in relation to other issues such as poverty, increasing urbanization, informalization of work, international trading regimes, and climate change. Existing pillars of food security echo and support the normative content of the right to food and put into question state compliance with its obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill this right. Food security is also very much a gender equality issue, which foregrounds the rights of women and girls throughout their life course and the core human rights principle of non-discrimination. Given the various dimensions and interrelationships of food security with overarching concepts related to human rights, a national policy anchored on a food sovereignty framework is imperative. Food security policy should likewise be integrated into a broader human rights-based social protection policy. While linking to global human rights- related directions such as the Millennium Development Goals and drawing inspiration from existing models such as that of Brazil, food security policies and programs should also be pursued at the local level and break new ground in adopting strategies like urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA).
Keywords: food security; human rights based approach; urban agriculture