PJSD 2012 Volume 4
The Social Protection Issue
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Issue Editor: Sylvia Estrada-Claudio
Jocelyn T. Caragay
Ma. Theresa V. Tungpalan
Managing Editor: Josefina M. Rolle
Copy Editor: Nancy Endrinal Pareno
Social Protection Strategies in Response to Crises: The Philippine Experience
by Rainier V. Almazan, Mylene D. Hega, and Rosalinda Pineda-Ofreneo
This article explains how the Philippine financial, economic, and environmental crises provided the impetus for the development and refinement of an operational framework on social protection for the country. It defines and identifies risks as well as the corresponding social protection responses to these risks. After discussing the official Philippine definition of social protection as well as its key components, it traces the evolution of the enhanced social protection operational framework, together with its main elements and implementing strategies. It focuses on the National Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction (NHTS-PR) as a new and major element, and on convergence and building adaptive capacity as innovative and potentially transformative strategies in the era of climate change. It critiques the inadequate and disproportionate financing of social protection programs, as well as the conventional criteria for assessing them. Taking off from human rights-based social protection floor advocated by the ILO and other UN agencies, it argues for transparent and participatory processes of monitoring and evaluation and recommends the broad perspective of sustainable human development to inform not only social protection but also broader poverty reduction strategies.
The Philippine Poverty Line: Does It Really Tell Us Who Is Poor?
by Ma. Victoria R. Raquiza
There is a need to challenge official poverty discourse. For one, official poverty estimation in the Philippines is based on arbitrary assumptions that keep the poverty threshold low, thereby reducing poverty incidence. In a country of high inequality and where the differences in incomes of a large swathe of the population are generally small, the placement of a poverty line underscores its conceptual and methodological weaknesses. The arbitrariness of this measure also has implications on how anti-poverty interventions and targets are conceptualized.
This paper outlines a number of possible options in dealing with the limitations of the poverty line approach which includes introducing the notion of a poverty zone to make targeting more inclusive. Furthermore, it points that greater efforts should be placed towards developing universal delivery of social services, including social protection programs.
Exploring the Organizing Mechanism Among 4Ps Beneficiaries
by John Erwin S. Banez
Pantawid Pamilya Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a conditional cash transfer program. It is a flagship poverty alleviation program of the Aquino Administration implemented by Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). It provides cash transfer to poor household to improve their health, nutrition, and educational status, particularly among children aged 0-16. Inherent in the program is an organizing mechanism. This study analyzed this organizing mechanism using data gathered from a review of 4Ps documents, forums, and discussions attended, and a survey done in Pasong Tamo, Quezon City. The 4Ps was analyzed using principles presented by Barker, et al. (1987), Danzger (1970) and participatory development as presented by Mohan (2001). The study argues that 4PS is not participatory, but this is not to say it has no real and important benefits. The study questions the conceptual basis of an anti-poverty program which receives a significant allocation of budget. Family development sessions (FDS) are recommended as an entry point of 4Ps convergence strategies with other participatory approaches such as the KALAHI-CIDSS.
Keywords: conditional cash transfer, participatory development, organizing
The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program: Towards Women’s Empowerment or Further Entrapment? (Voices of Beneficiaries in Legazpi City)
by Rowena Ayque Laguilles
This study focuses on the significance of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program in the lives of mother-beneficiaries in Legazpi City. Data gathering methods included program documents review, interviews with mother-beneficiaries and focus group discussions. It is found that the program keeps mother-beneficiaries in their impoverished situations, hardly addressing, and even capitalizing on, their gender-specific poverty.
Stories Women Tell: Five Rural Women’s Lived Experiences of Survival and Typhoons
by Teresita Villamor Barrameda
This paper is an initial exploration of five rural women’s interpretations of their lived experiences of daily survival and typhoons. Using feminist standpoint epistemology that builds knowledge from women’s experiences, the paper privileges the concrete experiences of the five rural women and their perspectives in viewing rural poverty, women’s vulnerabilities in times of typhoons, their difficulties in surmounting the aftereffects of typhoons, and their strategies in rebuilding their lives.
Prevailing Perceptions about People’s Participation in Disaster Management in Two Barangays in Metro Manila
by Leticia S. Tojos
This study was an attempt to look into how barangay officials continuously engaged the residents in DRRM activities in Santolan, Pasig and Tumana, Marikina. Using various data gathering methodologies, one area explored was the perceived notions of the local government department heads, members of the local disaster coordinating council, non- government and people’s organization representatives (key informants) and those of the residents vis-ā-vis the perspective about community participation promoted by the research team.
The data generated from the nineteen key informants and one hundred purposively chosen dwellers would provide valuable learnings not only to local officials but also to development planners and practitioners. It would enhance their understanding about the many facets of eliciting and sustaining the residents’ active involvement in disaster risk reduction and management at the barangay level. As was earlier mentioned, the results might impact in reducing risks and minimizing the costs of destruction in the localities.
Kabuhayang Binibid, Kinabukasang Tagilid: Isang Pananaliksik Tungkol sa Kontraktwalisasyon at Kasarian sa Office of Student Housing ng Unibersidad ng Pilipinas-Diliman
by Leah Emily C. Minoza
Ang artikulong ito ay nagsisiyasat sa kalagayan ng mga manggagawang kontrakwtal sa Office of Student Housing ng UP Diliman at ang pangkasariang salik sa iskemang kontraktwalisasyon. Binibigyang diin dito ang kawalan ng hustisya hindi lamang sa materyal na kalagayan ngunit pati na rin sa sikolohikal at sosyal na lagay ng manggagawang kontraktwal at ang umiiral na di-pantay na paghahati ng gawain sa loob ng tahanan.
This article explores the situation of contractual workers of the Office of Student Housing in UP Diliman and surfaces how gender figures in this work arrangement. The paper emphasizes that the injustice of contractualization is manifested not only in the material conditions but also on the psychological and social conditions of workers and its impacts on the gender division of labour.