PJSD 2010 Volume 2
The International Migration Issue
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Issue Editor: Mary Lou L. Alcid
Managing Editor: Josefina M. Rolle
Book Review: Revisiting Development as Freedom vis-a-vis the Right to Mobility
by Yolanda G. Ealdama
Filipino Seafarers: How Are They Faring? (A Situationer)
by Thelma B. Magcuro
The article gives an overview on the local and international seafaring industry, and the situation of its primary workforce, the seafarers. It shows the crucial role of the seafarers in local and international development and their significant contributions to the country as one of the highest contributors of remittances. Furthermore, it examines major issues confronted by the Filipino seafarers by virtue of the nature of their work amidst a changing global seafaring industry.
A Social Protection and Integration Strategy for Children of OFWs: A Case Study on the Psycho-Social Support Program of BUNGA Foundation, Inc.
by Mark Anthony D. Abenir
There is limited literature on how government and non-government agencies conduct psycho-social support programs and how effective these are in helping children left behind by overseas Filipino workers (OFWs). This paper addresses the gap by analyzing the ANAK program of BUNGA Foundation Inc. It makes use of auto-ethnography since it draws from the author’s phenomenological experience as part of said Foundation for five years and as one who, from birth until graduation from high school, was an OFW child. Additional data gathering methods included desk review of documents, participant observation, and informal interviews with key informants.
The study describes the components of the ANAK program of BUNGA, some of its gains from the perspective of the children themselves, and deviations from the design. It found the program to have had positive effects on the children, particularly in helping them regain familiarity and intimacy with their parent(s) and positively manage psychosocial and emotional strains. However, the ANAK program needs improvement in terms of operationalizing the children’s right to participation, and its involvement of teachers and parents left behind and other caregivers. Teachers and parents/caregivers represent basic pillars in ensuring a holistic approach to care drain, and program effectiveness and sustainability. Recommendations are given, specially on how children’s right to participation can be fulfilled by reinforcing the organizing component of the ANAK program. A framework for organizing OFW children is part of the recommendations.
This paper is important for those who are looking for innovative strategies on how to design and implement a psycho-social support for OFW children.
*For ethical considerations, the real name of the NGO is substituted with BUNGA.
Reunification of Filipino Families in Italy: What the Youth Have to Say
by Cristina M. Liamzon
Filipinos are among the first migrant groups that came to work in Italy, starting from the late 70s. The first wave of migrant workers, majority of them women, did not bring their families with them. But the family reunification program of the government has recently encouraged more Filipinos to bring their children to Italy, especially before they reach 18 years of age. Children who are brought to Italy, the so-called 1.25 and 1.5 generations, i.e., from about 10-18 years old, seem to experience more difficulties adjusting and integrating into Italian schools, even in re-connecting to their parents in Italy.
This study undertook a literature review of the situation of migrant children and youth in the United States (US) and in Europe, particularly in Italy, in terms of their integration and performance in school and in their families, and their identity formation. Two focus group discussions were also conducted with eleven (11) Filipino youths aged 14-20 who were petitioned by their parents to join them in Italy.
Findings from the FGDs support previous studied that show the emotional difficulties faced by migrant children as indicated by communication problems and lack of closeness with their absentee parents. Further, the lack of adequate grounding in speaking and understanding the Italian language as well as socio-psychological preparation greatly impede the migrant youth’s capacity to cope with school and to socialize with the Italian natives. They experience difficulties in schools and recognize the advantages of the Philippine educational system. Nevertheless, they firmly intend to remain in Italy so they could be with their parents. They have definite ambitions to finish their studies in order to find good employment and take over the income-earning responsibility from their parents.
Key words: migrant youth, integration, family reunification
Realizing the Development Potential of Filipino Diaspora Philanthropy
by Augustus T. Añonuevo and Estrella Mai Dizon-Añonuevo
Financial, material, and other contributions and donations of overseas Filipinos are largely sent to their communities of origin in the Philippines. Such philanthropy of the Filipino diaspora remains predominantly characterized by charitable giving focused on providing immediate assistance to those most in need in the Philippines. There are, however, emerging practices of strategic philanthropy of overseas Filipinos. The Asia Pacific Philanthropy Consortium (2007) defines strategic philanthropy by diaspora populations as “investments that fund longer term and sustainable solutions and social change in home countries, as opposed to charitable giving that addresses immediate needs, and beyond remittance transfers that fulfill familial obligations”. The study cited several examples of Filipino diaspora organizations ̶ in partnership with NGOs, foundations, and/or local and national government agencies ̶ engaged in strategic philanthropic investment aimed at sustainable development and social change. The cases of Ayala Foundation-United States of America, Answer for the Cry of the Poor/Gawad Kalinga and their partner overseas Filipino organizations and individuals were discussed and analyzed as exemplary efforts of strategic diaspora giving/philanthropy. The paper also cited the challenges that must be addressed and put forward recommendations for Filipino diaspora philanthropy to achieve significant scale and scope, and create meaningful impact on Philippine development.
An Assessment of the Materials and Methods Used in Disseminating Information on Human Trafficking in Two Barangays of Quezon City
by Leticia S. Tojos
Given the importance of popularizing human trafficking as a human rights issue, this study looks into the initiatives of local officials and non-government organizations in Barangays Botocan and Escopa 3 in Quezon City to disseminate information among residents. The assessment covered the following areas: messages or content of the materials, methods and media for disseminating information, consumers and extent of dissemination, and effects on receivers of information.
Data gathering was done by reviewing available information dissemination materials, interviewing key informants, and conducting focus group discussion with selected residents.
Findings show that the Quezon City government has a number of instructive materials on human trafficking that have targeted its social workers and other frontline service providers, and barangay officials and residents. The materials promote the human rights perspective. However, the contents or messages have not been fully understood by barangay residents. Methods of dissemination have also not facilitated comprehension and retention of information. This was because human trafficking as a topic was only one among several inputs to the barangays without benefit of discussion.
Positive outcomes of the efforts include the improved handling of human trafficking cases by direct service workers and local officials as well as reporting of cases by residents.
The Politics of Migration Multiculturalism in Australia, Japan, and Malaysia
by Jorge V. Tigno
The world has seen a dramatic increase in immigration levels towards settler countries like the United States, Canada, and Australia. Such levels of immigration are likely to exacerbate the multicultural concerns of states and societies in the world. Migration multiculturalism is the focus of this paper. It looks at the way that migration impacts upon the cultural diversity of many communities today. Does migration multiculturalism pose a serious challenge to the development of society? Does migration multiculturalism represent a threat upon states to foster a singular and coherent national community? States have become the primary gatekeepers to determine who gets to enter and stay as well as be entitled to citizenship rights. Looking at the conditions of multiculturalism in Australia, Japan, and Malaysia, the paper argues that destination countries are grappling with the problematique of how their states will reconstitute their respective societies given the increasing influx of other Asians and non-Whites as well as the reality of their declining fertility rates and the need to transform their economies to maintain overall competitiveness in the global market.