Philippine Journal of Social Development 2016 Volume 8

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Issue Editor: Nancy Endrinal Parreno

Editorial Board:

Jocelyn T. Caragay
Rainier V. Almazan
Emmanuel M. Luna, Ph.D.
Mary Lou L. Alcid
Leocito S. Gabo, Ph.D.

Managing Editor: Edgie Francis B. Uyanguren

Technical Editor: Melissa Y. Moran

  • The Creative Journeys of Filipino Social Workers in Program and Policy Development

    Justin Francis Leon V. Nicolas

  • Housing Rights and the Urban Poor: The Experiences of Selected Relocatees in Rodriguez, Rizal

    Jessica A. Viliran

  • The Role of Women’s Home Gardens in the Household Economy of Coconut Farming Households in Times of Recurrent Typhoons

    Teresita V. Barrameda, DSD

  • Children’s Stories on Occupational Risks in Sugarcane Farms

    Ma. Theresa V. Tungpalan, Ph.D.

  • Book Review:

    Twenty Years at Hull House with Autobiographical Notes

    Yolanda G. Ealdama

  • Special Feature:

    Reflections on the Utilization of Creative Modalities as an Alternative Social Work Intervention

    Jowima Ang-Reyes

  • Developing Dance Movement Exploration Model for Social Development

    Alberto L. Dimarucut

Saemaul Undong in Philippine Context: The Case of Brgy. Balincaguing in San Felipe, Zambales



Since 2012, Saemaul Globalization Foundation (SGF) of Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, Korea has been helping in the community development of Barangay Balincaguing in San Felipe, Zambales. It is the first Saemaul Village in the Philippines and East Asia. SGF made some achievement in the infrastructure such as road pavement, water tank system, comfort rooms, day care center and barangay hall. Livelihood projects were also initiated, however, the outcome of these endeavors are still to be seen. SGF sought the services of Sikhay-Kilos Development Association of the UP College of Social Work and Community Development to study the extent of development in Brgy. Balincaguing initiated by SGF and to propose a community-based and/or home-based livelihood project.


The study used methodologies such as Survey, Focus Group Discussion, Key Informants Interview, and Desk Review. These were conducted from April 24 – 29, 2016. Twenty percent of the total household population in the barangay or 46 respondents were interviewed for the survey. Two FGDs were conducted with a total of 15 participants. Moreover, five key informants were interviewed composed of the Barangay Captain, Mayor of San Felipe, Municipal Agriculture Officer, DTI officer of Zambales, and the Team Leader of SGF volunteers. The study’s findings and recommendations were validated in the Saemaul Seminar conducted on July 7, 2016 at the San Felipe Centrum. The seminar was attended by people from Balincaguing, SGF volunteers, Officials of San Felipe, KOICA representatives, and RMTU faculty and researchers.


In the Focus Group Discussions, participatory tools were used in order to capture and analyse the community’s situation. The tools used were Community Resource Mapping, Seasonal Calendar, and Daily Activity Cycle.




Socio-Economic Situation

  • Balincaguing is one of the 11 barangays of San Felipe, a fourth class municipality
  • The fiscal information of the barangay shows that the Internal Revenue Allotment is P1,095,263.00, and the income averages P24,000 annually.
  • The total population is 1,348 with 746 males and 602 females; and the total number of households is 229.
  • The major economic source of Balincaguing is agricultural which explains that farming is the main occupation of the people. However, 80% of the farmers are tenants; thus, they have to pay rent to the land owners.
  • Other economic activities are livestock raising, backyard gardening, driving public vehicles, and retail selling in sari-sari stores (convenient store)
  • The major crops or farm products of Balincaguing based on volume is rice, followed by corn, sweet potato and eggplant. Balincaguing is the rice granary of San Felipe. Half of San Felipe’s rice produce comes from Balincaguing.
  • The result of the survey showed that 76% of the total number of households is living below the poverty threshold. According to Philippine Statistics Authority (2015), a family of five needed at least P109, 680 annual income to be considered not poor. It means that 76% of families are earning less than P109, 680 a year.
  • In terms of educational attainment, 41% of them reached elementary level, 33% are high school level, 4% college level, 9% college graduate and 9% vocational graduate. This means that only 22% of the labor force is employable.
  • Lack of job opportunities is the community’s major problem followed by insufficient irrigation system, risks of disaster (especially lahar flows), lack of health facilities, food insecurity and lack of capital for farming.
  • For rice production, the estimated expenses for one hectare per cropping is P25,000 – P30,000. Most of the time, farmers borrow money for capital from traders, rural banks or private individuals.
  • Solutions to the problems, according to them, are provision of irrigation system, creation of jobs, provision of health services, provision of capital for farming with low interest, as well as, support services for farming. Other suggestions are to organize farmer cooperative and backyard gardening.


Trends in the Seasonal Calendar – A seasonal calendar is a participatory tool to show visually the various seasonal phenomena such as economic activities, especially in agriculture (crop cycles, different activities undertaken, etc), changes in climate, work load, and others.


  • Heavy Rains are expected from July to August.
  • Typhoon months are from September to October.
  • Drought time is from January to April.
  • The crop cycle for rice: the first cropping is planted within May – June and harvested within October-December; the second cropping is planted in November and harvested from February to March.
  • The crop cycle for corn is 120 days. It is usually planted in November or December as an alternative to rice if second cropping of rice is not possible due to insufficient water system.
  • Like corn, sweet potato is planted from December to January and harvested from March to April.
  • Vegetables are planted throughout the year except during months of heavy rain. The crop cycle for leafy vegetables is 60 days.
  • Mangoes are harvested from April to May; however these are for consumption only. Only a few residents sell mangoes.
  • Other economic activities include: food gathering, fishing (for consumption only), and backyard piggery. There used to be a chicken poultry but the chicken died due to extreme heat during March to April, on the other hand, some chicken also died due to heavy rains during the months of July to August.
  • Heavy expenses occurred during planting season and school enrollment.
  • Food stress or the time where food is insufficient is experienced in the months of February, August and September.
  • The period wherein the workload is at its heaviest is during the land preparation and harvest season. This is also the time wherein farm workers are in demand.
  • Community activities that people participated include the Fiesta (April), All Souls’ Day (November) and Christmas (December)


Women Activities

  • Women are mainly responsible with reproductive activities or housework.
  • The women are also involved in farming activities. They are involved in uprooting of rice seedlings (sikka), drying of unhusked rice (palay), and harvesting and selling of vegetables.


Assessment on SGF Development Initiatives

  • Generally, the people’s perception to SGF is positive. They said that SGF helps people by providing livelihood opportunities. They also view the Saemul spirit of self-help, diligence and cooperation as good values to be developed.
  • As for the projects initiated by SGF, pig-raising is the most popular followed by infrastructure projects such as toilets, concrete roads and barangay hall. Other projects that are well-appreciated are backyard gardening, sewing factory and the water system.


Factors of People’s Participation

  • Factors that facilitate people’s participation are: increase of income, learning new skills/technology, the good intention of SGF, and for the improvement of the barangay.
  • Hindering factors in participation are: no time due to multiple household responsibilities, people have to prioritize their job/work, loss of interest, people want instant benefit, miscommunication mainly because of language barrier and cultural differences, and some people say that only few are benefiting from the projects.



  • According to the respondents, the products they are recommending to be developed are the major products of the community such as rice, corn, sweet potato and vegetables.
  • Cattle dispersal is also suggested since they have spacious pasture land.
  • Build more greenhouses and net houses to have continuity of vegetable plants in wet season.
  • Support services for farming such as irrigation system and start-up capital.
  • The women recommended that they be given seminars on how to market their products.


  • The research team’s recommendations are based from the findings and the suggestions of the community.


  1. Provide start-up capital for farming through micro-credit service. This can be managed either by the Balincaguing Farmers’ Association or a new association/cooperative.


  1. Training on cooperative and entrepreneurial skills should be conducted.


  1. Define clearly the role, mandate and membership of the Saemaul Network Committee. Expand its membership to include more representatives from the barangay.


  1. Encourage and continue the backyard intensive gardening.


  1. Community organizing must be done to raise people’s awareness, develop community leaders, to strengthen existing associations, to develop other associations as needed and to mobilize resources. In order to serve other sectors in the community, other associations can be organized such as women’s association, vegetable planters association, livestock farmers association, etc.


  1. For the Saemaul volunteers, learn the language and culture of the community.


Philippine Journal of Social Development 2015 Volume 7




PJSD Maroon Cover option 2 copyPJSD 2015 Volume 7

Issue Editor: Leocito S. Gabo, PhD, DD

Editorial Board: Jocelyn T. Caragay, Rainier V. Almazan, Nathalie Lourdes A. Verceles, Rosalie T. Quilicol

Managing Editor: Celeste F. Vallejos

Technical Editor: Melissa Y. Moran 


Risk Taking and Risk Reduction by the Academe: An Experience in Integrating Teaching, Research and Extension Service in CBDRRM Program
by Emmanuel M. Luna, PhD

The Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (CBDRRM) Program was an action research implemented in Brgy. Sta. Ana, San Mateo, Rizal after the community was devastated by Typhoon Ondoy in 2009. The program began in April 2010 and lasted until October 2011. The program aimed to reduce the people’s risks to disasters and promote community development in the locality. At the same time, it provided the faculty and students with a venue for learning, to conduct research and extension services through field instruction. The action research affirms that education is a potent means for disaster risk reduction. As a participatory action research, the CBDRRM Program showed that social development methods such as organizing communities, capacity building through education and training, and socio-economic work can be integrated in disaster risk reduction. The experience affirms that it is possible to jointly undertake the academic functions such as teaching, extension service and research in a CBDRRM program.


The Transformative Value of Research in CD Practice: The Stories of Women Coco Coir Twiners and Weavers in Brgy. Monbon, Iroson, Sorsogon
by Teresita Villamor-Barrameda, DSD

This article demonstrates the transformative value of research in community development (CD) practice – research grounded in CD values and principles as participatory, action-oriented, empowering and transformative. It shows how research could bridge the gap between marginalized women and the CD practitioner in enacting change and serving as evidentiary basis for policy advocacy to improve the lives of women coco coir twiners and weavers in a
community frequently ravaged by recurrent typhoons and disasters. Ethical concerns in conducting research are also raised by the article in terms of being non-extractive and giving back to the women whatever benefits could be
generated as outcomes of the research.
The study used the life story method.  As a research method, it does not only serve as a venue for marginalized women’s voices to be heard but also as a means to raise  their awareness  about their common condition, eventually
propelling them to change their  condition. Their ability to tell their life stories is an exercise of power.  As storytellers of their lives, they have the power to direct the course of their  stories for the listener, the researcher. Through the life story method, the relation between participants also shifts from a researcher respondent to a listener-storyteller relation. Seeing the women as storytellers rather than research respondents provides an egalitarian way of treating them. The method also allows the researcher to see the context of a phenomenon through the lenses of the marginalized women, thus a more empowering process.


Community Development for Transformation: The Role of Community Organizations as Negotiating
Leverage in Conflict-Affected Communities
by Caroliza Tulod-Peteros

In different parts of the country, various communities of marginalized sectors have been faced with a lot of conflicts, rooted in their assertion of their claims over rights to land, housing, just wages, and decent working conditions,
among others. Government policies aligned with its adherence to liberalization policies aggravated this situation. More projects that will result to displacement of already marginalized communities in urban and rural areas are allowed, even if these encroach on productive farmlands or threaten the remaining ancestral lands of indigenous peoples. These projects have been met with opposition by the affected communities.


Community Development Research: Emerging Concepts, Methods and Practices

by Ma. Theresa V. Tungpalan, Phd and Aleli B. Bawagan, PhD

The application of social research in Community Development (CD) provides deeper meanings to action research, participatory research, and development research. Although these constructs emerged at different historical periods, their common thread weaves through three major themes – participatory methods, people’s action, and social transformation.


This paper aims to define development research in general and CD research in particular, as it has evolved over the years, using the theses and faculty researches as primary sources of data. The paper has the following sections: first is a summary of CD research done by the faculty and students at UP-CSWCD; second is a reflection on these researches identifying the nature of CD research; and the last section contains the good practices as well as the challenges faced by CD researchers.


These researches form part of CSWCD’s community-engaged scholarship, also called transformative scholarship, where the long-term perspective of academic pursuit is societal change and people’s empowerment. Moreover,
the following characteristics are evident in these researches: the standpoint for the poor, marginalized, and disempowered communities; interdisciplinary and integrative approaches grounded on theorizing; and production of knowledge products that contribute to both individual and collective scholarship of CSWCD and the University to serve the people.


Lakbay-Aral: Sama-samang Aralan at Paglilinang tungo sa Mapagpaunlad na Pangangasiwa ng Komunidad (Ang Karanasan sa Bulacan Heights)

by Gretchel N. Pelaez, Norby R. Salonga, and Leocito S. Gabo, PhD, DD

Ang paglalakbay na ginanap sa Bulacan Heights ay pagkakataon ng pagkilala sa kalagayan ng mga pamayananang inilipat mula sa isang kalagayang laging nakaamba sa panganib ng pagkasalanta mula sa kalikasan. Kaya sa paglipat nila sa isang panibagong tirahan, nahahamon ang pamamaraan ng pakikipagkapwa samantalang pilit na isinusulong ang kaunlaran ng pamilya.
Sa ibang mga pamilya, may kaukulang kaluwagan ang kanilang kalagayan dahil sa pinanggalingan nila, walang katiyakan ang kanilang paninirahan. Maliban sa panganib, hindi sa kanila ang lupang kinatitirikan ng kanilang tahanan. Sa bagong tirahan nasusubok ang kanilang pamamaraan ng pagbubuo ng pamayanan, maayos na kapitbahayan, at mahusay na turingan tungo sa isang malakas na samahan. Ang nagiging mahusay na ugnayan ay nilalahukan ng isang kasunduan sa gitna ng Pamahalaang Lokal at ng Kolehiyo ng Gawaing Panlipunan at Pagpapaunlad ng Pamayanan.
Masinsin na hakbang ang ginawang pagkilala at pagtukoy ng pangunahing ginalawan ng pag-oorganisa at ito ay tungo sa sama-samang pangangasiwa ng paninirahan.
Sa pagpapalitan ng mga karanasan ay masuyong hinahayag ng mga nangungunang pinuno na binaka nila sa simula ang pagkawala ng kanilang malalim na pagkilala sa kanilang sarili dahil sa pagkagiba ng kanilang dating tirahan. Itinanghal ang mga proseso bilang pagkakataon ng pagbangon at pagtangan ng bawat isa na makibahagi sa pamamaraang pagpapatibay na sama-sama. Nilakbay ang aral dahil hindi kayang unawain ng isang saglit ang buhay; unti-unti ang paghagip ng mga kahulugan.
Isang pagninilay ang sulating ito halaw sa karanasan ng programa sa pagpapaunlad ng pamayanan sa Catacte, Bulacan.

Talakayan, Tunggalian at Diskurso: Isang Pag-uusap tungkol sa Community Organizing at Community Development

by Maureen C. Pagaduan, Jeremi Panganiban, and Karl Arvin F. Hapal

Ang papel na ito ay ang dokumentandong pag-uusap o conversation ng tatlong practitioner tungkol sa mga piling usapin sa disiplina ng Community Organizing at Community Development. Ninanais nito na makaambag sa pagbubuo, pagpapalago at pagpapaunlad ng teorya, gawain, at pagtuturo ng CO-CD. Pinapatampok din dito ang mga piling usapin, mga hamon, at mga implikasyon sa paghubog ng disiplina. Ito ay ang kontribusyon ng mga mayakda sa pag-unlad ng disiplina at sa mas malaking gawaing pangkaunlaran kasama ang mga mahihirap tungo sa pagbabago ng sarili at lipunan. Sa huli, ang papel na ito ay isang imbitasyon upang ipagpatuloy ang pag-uusap upang mas mapayabong ang Community Organizing at Community Development.

Philippine Journal of Social Development 2012 Volume 4


PJSD 2012

The Social Protection Issue



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Issue Editor:

Sylvia Estrada-Claudio

Editorial Board:

Jocelyn T. Caragay

Rosalinda Pineda-Ofreneo

Ma. Theresa V. Tungpalan

Managing Editor:

Josefina M. Rolle

Copy Editor:

Nancy Endrinal Pareno


Social Protection Strategies in Response to Crises: The Philippine Experience by Rainier V. Almazan, Mylene D. Hega, and Rosalinda Pineda-Ofreneo  

This article explains how the Philippine financial, economic, and environmental crises provided the impetus for the development and refinement of an operational framework on social protection for the country. It defines and identifies risks as well as the corresponding social protection responses to these risks. After discussing the official Philippine definition of social protection as well as its key components, it traces the evolution of the enhanced social protection operational framework, together with its main elements and implementing strategies. It focuses on the National Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction (NHTS-PR) as a new and major element, and on convergence and building adaptive capacity as innovative and potentially transformative strategies in the era of climate change. It critiques the inadequate and disproportionate financing of social protection programs, as well as the conventional criteria for assessing them. Taking off from human rights-based social protection floor advocated by the ILO and other UN agencies, it argues for transparent and participatory processes of monitoring and evaluation and recommends the broad perspective of sustainable human development to inform not only social protection but also broader poverty reduction strategies.


The Philippine Poverty Line: Does It Really Tell Us Who Is Poor? by Ma. Victoria R. Raquiza

There is a need to challenge official poverty discourse. For one, official poverty estimation in the Philippines is based on arbitrary assumptions that keep the poverty threshold low, thereby reducing poverty incidence. In a country of high inequality and where the differences in incomes of a large swathe of the population are generally small, the placement of a poverty line underscores its conceptual and methodological weaknesses. The arbitrariness of this measure also has implications on how anti-poverty interventions and targets are conceptualized.

This paper outlines a number of possible options in dealing with the limitations of the poverty line approach which includes introducing the notion of a poverty zone to make targeting more inclusive. Furthermore, it points that greater efforts should be placed towards developing universal delivery of social services, including social protection programs.


Exploring the Organizing Mechanism Among 4Ps Beneficiaries by John Erwin S. Banez

Pantawid Pamilya Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a conditional cash transfer program. It is a flagship poverty alleviation program of the Aquino Administration implemented by Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). It provides cash transfer to poor household to improve their health, nutrition, and educational status, particularly among children aged 0-16. Inherent in the program is an organizing mechanism. This study analyzed this organizing mechanism using data gathered from a review of 4Ps documents, forums, and discussions attended, and a survey done in Pasong Tamo, Quezon City. The 4Ps was analyzed using principles presented by Barker, et al. (1987), Danzger (1970) and participatory development as presented by Mohan (2001). The study argues that 4PS is not participatory, but this is not to say it has no real and important benefits. The study questions the conceptual basis of an anti-poverty program which receives a significant allocation of budget. Family development sessions (FDS) are recommended as an entry point of 4Ps convergence strategies with other participatory approaches such as the KALAHI-CIDSS.

Keywords: conditional cash transfer, participatory development, organizing


The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program: Towards Women’s Empowerment or Further Entrapment? (Voices of Beneficiaries in Legazpi City) by Rowena Ayque Laguilles

This study focuses on the significance of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program in the lives of mother-beneficiaries in Legazpi City. Data gathering methods included program documents review, interviews with mother-beneficiaries and focus group discussions. It is found that the program keeps mother-beneficiaries in their impoverished situations, hardly addressing, and even capitalizing on, their gender-specific poverty.


Stories Women Tell: Five Rural Women’s Lived Experiences of Survival and Typhoons by Teresita Villamor Barrameda

This paper is an initial exploration of five rural women’s interpretations of their lived experiences of daily survival and typhoons. Using feminist standpoint epistemology that builds knowledge from women’s experiences, the paper privileges the concrete experiences of the five rural women and their perspectives in viewing rural poverty, women’s vulnerabilities in times of typhoons, their difficulties in surmounting the aftereffects of typhoons, and their strategies in rebuilding their lives.

Prevailing Perceptions about People’s Participation in Disaster Management in Two Barangays in Metro Manila by Leticia S. Tojos

This study was an attempt to look into how barangay officials continuously engaged the residents in DRRM activities in Santolan, Pasig and Tumana, Marikina. Using various data gathering methodologies, one area explored was the perceived notions of the local government department heads, members of the local disaster coordinating council, non- government and people’s organization representatives (key informants) and those of the residents vis-ā-vis the perspective about community participation promoted by the research team.

The data generated from the nineteen key informants and one hundred purposively chosen dwellers would provide valuable learnings not only to local officials but also to development planners and practitioners. It would enhance their understanding about the many facets of eliciting and sustaining the residents’ active involvement in disaster risk reduction and management at the barangay level. As was earlier mentioned, the results might impact in reducing risks and minimizing the costs of destruction in the localities.


Kabuhayang Binibid, Kinabukasang Tagilid: Isang Pananaliksik Tungkol sa Kontraktwalisasyon at Kasarian sa Office of Student Housing ng Unibersidad ng Pilipinas-Diliman by Leah Emily C. Minoza

Ang artikulong ito ay nagsisiyasat sa kalagayan ng mga manggagawang kontrakwtal sa Office of Student Housing ng UP Diliman at ang pangkasariang salik sa iskemang kontraktwalisasyon. Binibigyang diin dito ang kawalan ng hustisya hindi lamang sa materyal na kalagayan ngunit pati na rin sa sikolohikal at sosyal na lagay ng manggagawang kontraktwal at ang umiiral na di-pantay na paghahati ng gawain sa loob ng tahanan.

This article explores the situation of contractual workers of the Office of Student Housing in UP Diliman and surfaces how gender figures in this work arrangement. The paper emphasizes that the injustice of contractualization is manifested not only in the material conditions but also on the psychological and social conditions of workers and its impacts on the gender division of labour.

Philippine Journal of Social Development 2009 Volume 1

2009 PJSD Volume 1


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Issue Editors:

Lilly V. Mangubat

Nilan G. Yu

Managing Editor:

Josefina M. Rolle 


1. Sustainability: Myth or Reality? Understanding the Concept and Nature of Sustainability and the Factors Affecting It by Lea C. Derequito

The study analyzes two sustainability frameworks and centers on community-based and people-oriented development projects, focusing on the perceptions, specific circumstances and experiences of different stakeholders involved in these projects. The significant outcome of the study is the conceptualization of a more comprehensive and unified definition of sustainability and a rating scale for evaluating and monitoring development project’s progress towards sustainability.



2. Making the GAD Budget Gender-Responsive at the Local Government Level by Nathalie Lourdes A. Verceles 

The study reviews the executive and legislative policies for the GAD budget in the Philippines and examines issues that preclude the full enforcement of the GAD budget law at the LGU level. It explores how the practical and strategic gender needs of low-income Filipino women can be better addressed by the effective and effectual implementation of the GAD budget policy.



3. When Water is Scarce, We Suffer Too: Water Scarcity through the Eyes of the Children in an Urban Poor Community by Teresita Villamor Barrameda

The article describes the effects of water scarcity on households in an urban poor setting, as seen through the eyes of children.  Using the conceptual frame of deprivation and viewing access to water as a basic human right, it examines water deprivation as one of the indicators of poverty. Through a case study, the paper shows how water scarcity adversely affects children who are among the most vulnerable members of poor households.


4. Experiences and Lessons from an International Practicum Program in Undergraduate Field Instruction by Young Ran Kim

This paper outlines the process of organizing social work practicum placements in the Philippines for students from Mokpo National University (MNU), South Korea, in cooperation with the College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines, Diliman. It presents insights drawn from students’ reports, faculty documents, and the coordinator’s methods and skills but also cultural awareness and strategies for overcoming their own inadequacies. Overall, the objectives of the program were achieved despite cultural and language limitations. The paper concludes with a discussion of learning gains, limitations and suggestions for future related programs.


5. Student’s Evaluation of their Agency-Based Field Instruction: Insights and Implications for Future Field Placements by Rosalie T. Quilicol 

This paper reviews the University of the Philippines – Department of Social Work (UP-DSW) students’ evaluation of their agency-based fieldwork experiences for the period 2006-2008. The review focuses on the three elements of field instruction, namely: the students, the agency, and field supervision. In general, the students rated their first field instruction course positively in terms of their perceived performance. The agencies were also favorably rated, with majority of the students saying that partnerships with these agencies were worth continuing. Likewise, students perceived that supervision provided by the faculty and agency supervisors was adequate. The paper concludes with some points drawn from the review of the students’ evaluation that can enhance the effectiveness of the field instruction program.



6. Opinion: Privatization of the University of the Philippines: Circumstance, Forms, Resistance by Judy M. Taguiwalo 


7. Book Review: The Ethics of Development by Des Gasper Reviewed by Yolanda G. Ealdama 


Philippine Journal of Social Development 2010 Volume 2

2010 PJSD Volume 2

The International Migration Issue

2011 PJSD 001


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Issue Editor:

Mary Lou L. Alcid

Managing Editor:

Josefina M. Rolle  


1. Book Review: Revisiting Development as Freedom vis-a-vis the Right to Mobility by Yolanda G. Ealdama


2. Filipino Seafarers: How Are They Faring? (A Situationer) by Thelma B. Magcuro 

The article gives an overview on the local and international seafaring industry, and the situation of its primary workforce, the seafarers. It shows the crucial role of the seafarers in local and international development and their significant contributions to the country as one of the highest contributors of remittances. Furthermore, it examines major issues confronted by the Filipino seafarers by virtue of the nature of their work amidst a changing global seafaring industry.


3. A Social Protection and Integration Strategy for Children of OFWs: A Case Study on the Psycho-Social Support Program of BUNGA Foundation, Inc. by Mark Anthony D. Abenir

There is limited literature on how government and non-government agencies conduct psycho-social support programs and how effective these are in helping children left behind by overseas Filipino workers (OFWs). This paper addresses the gap by analyzing the ANAK program of BUNGA Foundation Inc. It makes use of auto-ethnography since it draws from the author’s phenomenological experience as part of said Foundation for five years and as one who, from birth until graduation from high school, was an OFW child. Additional data gathering methods included desk review of documents, participant observation, and informal interviews with key informants.

The study describes the components of the ANAK program of BUNGA, some of its gains from the perspective of the children themselves, and deviations from the design. It found the program to have had positive effects on the children, particularly in helping them regain familiarity and intimacy with their parent(s) and positively manage psychosocial and emotional strains. However, the ANAK program needs improvement in terms of operationalizing the children’s right to participation, and its involvement of teachers and parents left behind and other caregivers. Teachers and parents/caregivers represent basic pillars in ensuring a holistic approach to care drain, and program effectiveness and sustainability. Recommendations are given, specially on how children’s right to participation can be fulfilled by reinforcing the organizing component of the ANAK program. A framework for organizing OFW children is part of the recommendations.

This paper is important for those who are looking for innovative strategies on how to design and implement a psycho-social support for OFW children.

*For ethical considerations, the real name of the NGO is substituted with BUNGA.


4. Reunification of Filipino Families in Italy: What the Youth Have to Say by Cristina M. Liamzon

Filipinos are among the first migrant groups that came to work in Italy, starting from the late 70s. The first wave of migrant workers, majority of them women, did not bring their families with them. But the family reunification program of the government has recently encouraged more Filipinos to bring their children to Italy, especially before they reach 18 years of age. Children who are brought to Italy, the so-called 1.25 and 1.5 generations, i.e., from about 10-18 years old, seem to experience more difficulties adjusting and integrating into Italian schools, even in re-connecting to their parents in Italy.

This study undertook a literature review of the situation of migrant children and youth in the United States (US) and in Europe, particularly in Italy, in terms of their integration and performance in school and in their families, and their identity formation. Two focus group discussions were also conducted with eleven (11) Filipino youths aged 14-20 who were petitioned by their parents to join them in Italy.

Findings from the FGDs support previous studied that show the emotional difficulties faced by migrant children as indicated by communication problems and lack of closeness with their absentee parents. Further, the lack of adequate grounding in speaking and understanding the Italian language as well as socio-psychological preparation greatly impede the migrant youth’s capacity to cope with school and to socialize with the Italian natives. They experience difficulties in schools and recognize the advantages of the Philippine educational system. Nevertheless, they firmly intend to remain in Italy so they could be with their parents. They have definite ambitions to finish their studies in order to find good employment and take over the income-earning responsibility from their parents.

Key words: migrant youth, integration, family reunification


5. Realizing the Development Potential of Filipino Diaspora Philanthropy by Augustus T. Añonuevo and Estrella Mai Dizon-Añonuevo 

Financial, material, and other contributions and donations of overseas Filipinos are largely sent to their communities of origin in the Philippines. Such philanthropy of the Filipino diaspora remains predominantly characterized by charitable giving focused on providing immediate assistance to those most in need in the Philippines. There are, however, emerging practices of strategic philanthropy of overseas Filipinos. The Asia Pacific Philanthropy Consortium (2007) defines strategic philanthropy by diaspora populations as “investments that fund longer term and sustainable solutions and social change in home countries, as opposed to charitable giving that addresses immediate needs, and beyond remittance transfers that fulfill familial obligations”. The study cited several examples of Filipino diaspora organizations  ̶  in partnership with NGOs, foundations, and/or local and national government agencies ̶  engaged in strategic philanthropic investment aimed at sustainable development and social change. The cases of Ayala Foundation-United States of America, Answer for the Cry of the Poor/Gawad Kalinga and their partner overseas Filipino organizations and individuals were discussed and analyzed as exemplary efforts of strategic diaspora giving/philanthropy. The paper also cited the challenges that must be addressed and put forward recommendations for Filipino diaspora philanthropy to achieve significant scale and scope, and create meaningful impact on Philippine development.


6. An Assessment of the Materials and Methods Used in Disseminating Information on Human Trafficking in Two Barangays of Quezon City by Leticia S. Tojos

Given the importance of popularizing human trafficking as a human rights issue, this study looks into the initiatives of local officials and non-government organizations in Barangays Botocan and Escopa 3 in Quezon City to disseminate information among residents. The assessment covered the following areas: messages or content of the materials, methods and media for disseminating information, consumers and extent of dissemination, and effects on receivers of information.

Data gathering was done by reviewing available information dissemination materials, interviewing key informants, and conducting focus group discussion with selected residents.

Findings show that the Quezon City government has a number of instructive materials on human trafficking that have targeted its social workers and other frontline service providers, and barangay officials and residents. The materials promote the human rights perspective. However, the contents or messages have not been fully understood by barangay residents. Methods of dissemination have also not facilitated comprehension and retention of information. This was because human trafficking as a topic was only one among several inputs to the barangays without benefit of discussion.

Positive outcomes of the efforts include the improved handling of human trafficking cases by direct service workers and local officials as well as reporting of cases by residents.


7. The Politics of Migration Multiculturalism in Australia, Japan, and Malaysia by Jorge V. Tigno 

The world has seen a dramatic increase in immigration levels towards settler countries like the United States, Canada, and Australia. Such levels of immigration are likely to exacerbate the multicultural concerns of states and societies in the world. Migration multiculturalism is the focus of this paper. It looks at the way that migration impacts upon the cultural diversity of many communities today. Does migration multiculturalism pose a serious challenge to the development of society? Does migration multiculturalism represent a threat upon states to foster a singular and coherent national community? States have become the primary gatekeepers to determine who gets to enter and stay as well as be entitled to citizenship rights. Looking at the conditions of multiculturalism in Australia, Japan, and Malaysia, the paper argues that destination countries are grappling with the problematique of how their states will reconstitute their respective societies given the increasing influx of other Asians and non-Whites as well as the reality of their declining fertility rates and the need to transform their economies to maintain overall competitiveness in the global market.



Philippine Journal of Social Development 2011 Volume 3

 2011 PJSD Volume 3

The Disaster Risk Reduction for Social Development Issue

PJSD Cover 3 copy_1

(click here to view the electronic version of the journal)

Issue Editor:

Emmanuel M. Luna

Guest Editorial Adviser:

JC Gaillard

Editorial Board:

Jocelyn T. Caragay, Rosalinda Pineda-Ofreneo, Ma. Theresa V. Tungpalan

Managing Editor:

Josefina M. Rolle 



1. Addressing the Social Dimensions of Climate Change through Adaptive Social Protection by Rosalinda Pineda Ofreneo

Considered a crucial development challenge of the present times, climate change increases the vulnerability of the poorest and most disadvantaged groups as in the experience of farmers, fisherfolk, indigenous peoples, women and children. With the risks associated with the phenomenon that the country is now facing, from flooding to geologic dangers, destruction of “weather-dependent” livelihoods to health-related impacts, relevant policies and plans at the national and local governments were devised mainstreaming climate change and disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM).

The Philippines for instance has now advanced pieces of legislation to enhance, strengthen and rationalize social protection protection policies and programs, to further lead articulation and integration of climate change and DRRM concerns into current and future interventions. Aimed at contributing to the process, this “think paper” addresses the social dimensions of climate change through espousing a rights-based, transformative, gender-responsive, participatory and sustainable approach to social protection.

This study likewise integrates the broad meanings of social protection to include economic justice, as in the rights to an adequate standard of living or in the redistributive aspect of using and owning land and water resources. It connects social protection to various conceptions of justice: gender justice, reproductive justice, environmental justice, and climate justice.


2. Comunity-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework: Lessons from Implementation by Aleli B. Bawagan

This paper presents the community-based disaster risk reduction and management (CBDRRM) framework as it is being implemented by various stakeholders, such as non-government organizations, people’s organizations, local government units, academic institutions and other civil society organizations. The engagements of the development workers in projects and activities under each major phase of the framework are discussed. For preparedness and mitigation, projects that build disaster resilient communities are highlighted, focusing on early warning systems, advocacy with local governments and building sustainable livelihoods. For disaster response, having a damage and needs assessment (DANA) and preparing a more gender-sensitive and older persons-sensitive relief kit are presented as experienced during relief operations after typhoon Ondoy. For rehabilitation and recovery, participatory processes engaged in re-building potable water supplies are discussed.


3. Lessons and Challenges in Disaster Relief Operations for Families Affected by Typhoon Ondoy in Rizal Province by Josephine Tajo-Firmase, Vincent F. Eugenio, Ma. Josephine A. Bullo, Liew Shao Yi, Delmar Gabriel, and Emmanuel M. Luna

Due to 2009 flood brought by Typhoon Ondoy, relief operations were done through the partnership of a humanitarian organization and the academe. The engagement of the academy was deemed important to document and draw lessons from the experience in emergency response. This paper examines the experience on disaster relief operations. It looks at the processes, good practices, challenges and issues faced during the provision of relief goods from needs assessment, pre-distribution preparation, actual distribution and post-distribution activities. The paper provides insights in improving practices in disaster relief operations that can contribute to more humane processes, better interpersonal relations and substantial impact.



4. Community Development Approach in the Recovery of Selected Communities Affected by Typhoon Ondoy Flood by Emmanuel M. Luna

In September 2009, Metro Manila and the surrounding communities experienced the worst flood due to Typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng. The depth of the flood reached 30 feet in some communities, submerging a number of urban poor areas. Along the Marikina River, residents were either relocated or allowed to stay in their communities. But, those who were relocated to safer areas were confronted with new challenges due to problems in proximity and poor access to their sources of livelihood and the schools. Moreso, services for water, power and other basic provisions were inadequate. On the other hand, the people who stayed in the same vulnerable areas were able to immediately start rebuilding their houses and respective communities. Using the community development framework, this paper looks at the recovery and rebuilding of communities affected by the flood in two barangays: one that was relocated to another site; and, another that stayed in the vulnerable community. The outcome shows that the people who remained in the same community had a higher level of recovery compared to those in the relocation area. In this community, the residents had greater experiences in community education, organizing, resources and disaster risk management processes.

Key words: Community-based disaster risk management, community development, flood recovery


5. Social and Economic Impacts of Flooding and Land Subsidence in KAMANAVA, Metro Manila by Karen Ann B. Jago-on, Shinji Kaneko, and Satoru Komatsu

Many areas in Metro Manila are subjected to heavy and regular flooding. Excessive rains brought by monsoons and typhoons cause flooding in the metropolis and storm surges along its coastal areas.  The temporary accumulation of water is also due to insufficient drainage systems and impervious surfaces. In recent years, these flooding events have been exacerbated by land subsidence, especially in the northern parts of Metro Manila or the KAMANAVA area. A survey of households and companies was conducted to understand the flood characteristics in the area and the socio-economic impacts on the community. Results reveal the social and economic consequences and impact of flooding to properties, health and livelihood. The study shows also the factors affecting the annual cost due to floods. The research concludes with policy recommendations to curtail land subsidence and eventually reduce the impacts of flooding.


6. Rebuilding Communities and Lives: The Role of Damayan and Bayanihan in Disaster Resiliency by Teresita V. Barrameda and Arlen Sandino V. Barrameda

The study explores the roles played by damayan (mutual aid) and bayanihan (cooperation and volunteerism) in the lives of people in five rural communities in Albay Province. It highlights how these indigenous practices serve as social resource in the people’s day-to-day survival; as coping mechanisms in times of typhoons and flooding; and, as adaptive strategies in building their resiliency. The study shows that these practices help in developing their own sub-cultures of safety and promoting the emotional well-being of the people. There were limitations in these indigenous practices, requiring external support to sustain the people’s initiatives for recovery. The study also provides insights and proposals on how local government units and organizations in the disaster field can utilize damayan and bayanihan in disaster risk reduction.


Philippine Journal of Social Development 2013 Volume 5

2013 PJSD Volume 5

The Peace and Governance Issue

PJSD Cover 2013

(click here to view the electronic version of the journal)


Issue Editor:

Aleli B. Bawagan, PhD

Editorial Board:

Jocelyn T. Caragay

Rosalinda Pineda-Ofreneo, PhD

Leocito S. Gabo, PhD

Managing Editor:

Josefina M. Rolle

Copy Editor:

Rowena Ayque Laguilles 


1. Gendered Work Relations Systems in Agriculture: Implications to Women’s Participation, Good Governance and Sustainable Development by Rebecca Samson-Gaddi, PhD

In recent years, feminist epistemology has allowed philosophical discourses and literary writings through women’s eyes. Women have played important roles, most often unrecognized, in setting the texture, pace and values of social, cultural, political and economic development. Two field level experiences, specifically on sustainable farming and coastal resource management, show how rural women’s participation and contribution have engendered work practices through the production systems they engage in. While part of the agricultural production process, women also responded to life circumstances considering crucial needs of their families, organizational responsibilities and community participation.

Keywords: work relations systems, sustainable agriculture, rural women’s participation in sustainable farming and coastal resource management.


2. Participation of Farmer Leaders in Local and National Governance Structures: Will it Work? by Aleli B. Bawagan, PhD, Ana Angela T. Cayabyab, Devralin T. Lagos, Victor G. Obedicen, Celeste F. Vallejos, and Reginald S. Vallejos

This paper aims to present the outcomes of participation of farmer leaders elected to local and national government positions. At the local levels, these positions include being chiefs of villages, members of the local village council, mayor, and municipal councilor; while at the national level, being representative of a party list in Congress. This research looks into the outcomes on four aspects: on the individual leader, specifically on their views regarding the parliamentary struggle and its contribution to advancing their development agenda; on the benefits that accrue to the people’s organization; on the services that were rendered to the community; and how the leaders achieved and promoted their sectoral development agenda as elected officials. The study also intends to surface lessons and implications to community development theory and practice in terms of leadership development, community organizing, community governance and empowerment.

The case studies provide rich insights on the role of farmer leaders in local and national governance. The cases show the importance of practicing the values of being persistent, consultative, participatory, and selfless service, which the leaders have learned from their respective organizations and carried with them even when they are now in government positions. Their experiences demonstrate that people’s organizations are good training ground for future leaders in government. Moreover, the leaders have shown that if elected officials have the welfare of people in mind, remote areas will not be neglected and will be provided with basic infrastructure and social services which people have aspired for over the years.

Keywords: community governance, leadership development, community development


3. Emerging Roles of Non-Government and Community-Based Organizations in Social Development: Some Case Studies Focusing on Children by Editha Venus Maslang, PhD

This paper describes and analyzes the specific roles and contributions of selected NGOs in the Philippines to social development and how they are able to ensure sustainability of the gains from their efforts and interventions. Starting off with a theoretical discussion on social development, the paper revolves around how the interplay of socio-cultural, economic, political and environment factors has impinged upon the outcomes of interventions of these NGOs. Social development is focused on two major elements: a) access to resources and opportunities, and b) strengthened capacities for sustained participation and empowerment. Three brief case studies are presented to narrow the discussions to the experiences of some selected members of the National Council of Social Development (NCSD) that cater primarily to the children sector.

Using desk review and case study methods, the data revealed the following: a) increased participation of women in community development work as leaders or active volunteers; b) creation and implementation of some alternative models of practice – mobile school, street peer education, and mobilizing peace builders among children; c) strengthened capacities of CBO leaders in governance and partnership building;  d) presence of community-based structures, mechanisms and processes that facilitate the project development processes; e) introduction of cost-efficient and culturally appropriate technologies such as backyard gardening and community-based savings and mobilization scheme that effectively sustained the interest and participation of the members; f) the presence of second-line leaders; and, g) formalized partnerships with the local government units and other key partners.

On the other hand, the following are needed capacities to effectively sustain the project initiatives and gains of the organizations: further advocacy for stronger and sustained support to the NGO projects/activities from among their local partners and key stakeholders; strengthening of capacities on resource mobilization, financial management and stewardship, and network and alliance building; and, the preparation and implementation of a sustainability plan at the onset of project implementation.

Keywords: social development, roles of non-government organizations and community – based organizations


4. The Meaning of Creativity among Filipino Social Workers and its Implications to Governance by Justin Francis Leon V. Nicolas

The meanings that Filipino social workers attach to creativity have implications on social administration and governance.   The personal and work-related meanings that the participants give to creativity, the areas of practice that they view as creative and the conditions in the workplace that favour or hinder creativity also point to areas of “creative leadership”.  Using a phenomenological approach, the research focuses on the journeys of social workers in creativity.  The research describes how practitioners consider social work as a creative profession and how their work introduces innovation in the organization and in service delivery through formulation of new policy, programs and strategies. The study suggests that leadership needs to apply governance approaches that harness creativity in individuals and in organizations. The study also suggests a typology of meanings of creativity that may be the basis for further studies in this area.

Keywords: creativity, social work practice, creative leadership, governance


5. Community Development Animating Peacebuilding from Below: The Case of GiNaPaLaDTaKa Space for Peace in Pikit, North Cotabato by Fermin P. Manalo, Jr. 

The paper explores ways by which Community Development (CD) principles and strategies can animate community-based peacebuilding  as lens with which to comprehend the latter’s dynamics and as means to facilitate its formation. This exploration was done by culling out insights from the experience of GiNaPaLaDTaKa Space for Peace. Inversely, the paper also looked at the ways by which CD strategies could be shaped by a situation of large scale violence amidst communities striving to build peace. The paper recommends ways by which community-based peacebuilding can be institutionalized through the mechanisms of community governance and how as a local initiative, it can possibly become the foundation for  national level peacebuilding – thus, Peacebuilding from Below.

Keywords: peacebuilding from below, community development, space for peace


6. Addressing Food Security Issues Using a Human Rights-Based Approach by Rosalinda Pineda Ofreneo, PhD

In the face of persistent hunger stalking the Philippines, Asia, and the entire world, it is important to situate food security issues in relation to other issues such as poverty, increasing urbanization,  informalization of work, international trading regimes, and climate change. Existing pillars of food security echo and support the normative content of the right to food and put into question state compliance with its obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill this right.  Food security is also very much a gender equality issue, which foregrounds the rights of women and girls throughout their life course and the core human rights principle of non-discrimination. Given the various dimensions and interrelationships of food security with overarching concepts related to human rights, a national policy anchored on a food sovereignty framework is imperative. Food security policy should likewise be integrated into a broader human rights-based social protection policy. While linking to global human rights- related directions such as the Millennium Development Goals and drawing inspiration from existing models such as that of Brazil, food security policies and programs should also be pursued at the local level and break new ground in adopting strategies like urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA).

Keywords: food security; human rights based approach; urban agriculture

Sikhay Kilos Newsmagazine

Sikhay Kilos Newsmagazine is the annual publication of the College of Social Work and Community Development in which various activities and milestones of each department are featured. It is being launched every Recognition Day and distributed for free.

Latest Issue 

Sikhay Kilos Newsmagazine 2017

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Sikhay Kilos Newsmagazine 2013

Philippine Journal of Social Development 2014 Volume 6 Number 1

PJSD 2014

Volume 6 Number 1 

The Social Solidarity Economy Issue


click here to view the electronic version of the journal

Issue Editor:

Rosalinda Pineda-Ofreneo, PhD

Editorial Board:

Jocelyn T. Caragay

Ma. Theresa V. Tungpalan, PhD

Emmanuel M. Luna, PhD

Managing Editor

Anne-Di V. Berdin

Copy Editor

Rowena Ayque Laguilles

1.  Introduction by Rosalinda Pineda-Ofreneo, PhD 


2. Rediscovering Social Solidarity Economy in Community Based Supply Chains  by Benjamin R. Quiñones,  PhD

The paper argues that there is a need for strengthening the solidarity between local producers and local consumers of community-based supply chains if inclusive and sustainable development is to be achieved. To support this argument and illustrate how social solidarity economy (SSE) is being developed as an alternative model of development, the paper cites the case of the free range chicken managed and operated by On Eagle’s Wings Development Philippines Foundation (OEWF). An evaluation by OEWF (2012) shows that civil society organizations (CSOs),  people’s organizations, local for-profit private companies, and the local government unit managed to work together in developing a socially inclusive community-based supply chain. This  suggests the relevance of a public policy favoring CSO-public partnership in undertaking local development projects as an alternative to the private-public partnership (PPP) which usually excludes CSOs and people’s organizations in the development process.


3. Innovations in Community Social Enterprise Development: The Bohol  PACAP FOCAS Experience by Lourdes Marina Padilla-Espenido

Social Solidarity Economics is “a strategy for inclusive development where the people and NGOs  utilize social enterprise to improve the well-being of the poor and increase their incomes, promote environmental protection, and contribute to community economies.” (RIPESS Proceedings, 2013, cited in Ofreneo, n.d.) An example  is the Focused Community Assistance Scheme (FOCAS) of the Philippines- Australia Community Assistance Program (PACAP).


4. Livelihood Practices of Women in the Informal Economy: Forging Pathways  Towards a Feminist Solidarity Economy by Nathalie Africa-Verceles, DSD 

This research focuses on women in the informal economy, specifically self-employed/own-account micro-entrepreneurs and sub-contracted workers. Using three case studies, it investigated how livelihood projects which exemplify solidarity economics address and rectify the systematic subordination of women informal workers and build on their capacities for  solidarity.  It also identified the gaps that need to be bridged towards a more explicit feminist solidarity economy.


5. CSR and Social Solidarity Economy: Exploring Shared Responsibilities by Anna Kristinna N. Palomo

This paper reviews the evolution of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) globally and within the Philippines.  It discusses the contradictory nature of CSR and looks how CSR and Social Solidarity Economy (SSE) can be harmonized through shared responsibilities in building social enterprises, local economies and sustainable communities; adherence to global human rights and labor standards; and shifting to corporate social accountability.


6. SACADA: A Look at the Hacienda System in the Philippines by Editha Venus-Maslang, DPA    

In examining the situation of sacadas, the author used the ‘empowerment’ theory – one’s capacity for critical thinking and understanding of structural inequalities. The sacadas have remained marginalized and disempowered over the past years owing to the transitory and migratory nature of their work, their lack of access to social protection, and the socio-economic inequities that pervade in their work environment.


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